Mitragynine is the main alkaloid present in Mitragyna speciosa leaf with opioid agonistic activity. The mitragynine content in Mitragyna speciosa leaves varied from place to place depending on the geographical location and season. The mitragynine content of Thai M. speciosa was 66% of the total alkaloids while the Malaysian species contained only 12% of the total alkaloids. This necessitates finding a simple, fast and reproducible method to obtain mitragynine from Malaysian species of M. speciosa. Currently, several methods are available for the extraction and isolation of mitragynine from Mitragyna speciosa leaf. These extraction and isolation methods published have their own advantages and disadvantages. Most of these methods commonly employs soxhlet extraction method using methanol as solvent to obtain the crude extract of M. speciosa leaves. However, these methods were very slow and require days to obtain crude extract of M. Speciosa. The extract obtained by these methods were sticky, agglutinated and might need sonication to facilitate the extraction of mitragynine from the crude extracts. (Goh,2011)
Most of the Kratom extracts are made in water. They are categorized as 5x, 10x and 15x, 20x, 25x, etc. which shows how much leaf is used to make it by weight. The extraction has made it very soft so that when it is added to warm water, it dissolves within minutes. (Goh,2011)
OPMS Maeng Da Kratom
OPMS Malay Special Reserve
OPMS Thai Kratom
Side effects of Maend Da
For home made water based extraction, you need 200mg of fresh Kratom which is already finely grounded with no visible veins.
- First step is the addition of water which is enough saturate Kratom. This step requires experience and needs a careful watch. No lumps are to be made while mixing in water.
- After adding water, the mixture is heated to obtain boils along with continuous stir. Wooden spoons are preferred to be used.
- Juice of one fresh lemon or lime can be mixed which helps to extract the alkaloids out of leaves powder. As this mixture is boiled, the lemon juice is evaporated which means it makes no difference to the taste. However, it enhances the taste.
- After boiling the mixture for 20-30 minutes, you can turn the flame off and let it settle when it takes the shape of a syrup like paste.
- Kratom and lime mixture is to be filtered for which you can use a muslin bag which will help only the liquid with infused Kratom to pass. If you are using crushed leaves, a strainer can work for filtration too.
- Rubber gloves are advised to be used in straining step since the liquid is very hot, it might burn the hands.
- The leftover solid Kratom can be shifted back to the cooking pot along with more lime juice, re-boiled and re-strained to extract the reaming alkaloids.
- The boiled and filtered water is rest aside in a flat dish which makes the water evaporate.
- When most of the water is evaporated, the result is thick paste of Kratom, it might take 1-2 days depending on the consistency of the mixture.
- After one day or two, it takes the shape of a semi-sold and finally a solid but breakable shape. It can be molded to form tablets, grounded with pestle and mortar to make powder or can be used as it is by breaking a small part and dissolving it in tea.
From 200mg Powder Kratom, the pure extract can be achieved of 35-40 grams. You can make your ingredient count for obtaining the desired concentration.
In Malaysia and Thailand, the leaves are traditionally used to treat intestinal infections, muscle pain, to reduce coughing and diarrhea. M. speciosa preparations have been used by Malay and Thai natives for its opium and coca-like effects to enhance tolerance for hard work under the hot sun. According to Burkill (1935), the earliest reports of Kratom use in Malaysia date back to 1836, when its use as opium substitution was reported. Holmes (1895) later confirmed this and identified the leaves as those from the M. speciosa tree. In the nineteenth century, M. speciosa was reported to work as an opium substitute in the treatment of opium addiction in Malaysia and Thailand. (Zurina, 2013)
A researcher reported withdrawal effects after M. speciosa consumption. Several researchers described the medical use of the Kratom leaves in Thailand had been used to replace morphine in addicts during detoxification in treatment programmes. Kratom has weaker effects than morphine with a shorter duration. Recently two surveys in Malaysia and one in Thailand among current users in the community have been published. These studies also found that Ketum/Kratom was used to increase physical endurance and as a cheaper substitute for opiates. In Thailand, M. speciosa preparations are consumed by the three wheeled motorized ‘taxis’ as an amphetamine substitute. In Western societies, plant preparations are easily accessible from the local coffee shops and web-based ‘legal highs’ pharmacies. This had enticed many consumers there to use the plant as selftreatment in modulating opiate withdrawal, alcohol withdrawal, and chronic pain. In fact, it is a cheaper alternative to the established opioid-replacement therapies and is obtainable without medical prescription. (Zurina, 2013)
There is a general effect of ‘cocaine-like’ stimulation in small doses, while at high doses ‘morphine-like’ sedation and nausea are reported. Several studies suggestthat M. speciosa preparations have analgesic, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, euphoric, anti-depressant, and anxiolytic effects. They may work as immune booster, lower blood pressure, and have anti-viral, diabetes- and appetite suppressing. Besides this, they can also cause anorexia, dry-mouth, diuresis and constipation after long term use at high doses. While there was no evidence of a dosage increment among long-term and repeated users, withdrawal symptoms were reported which suggest an addiction potential. (Zurina, 2013)
These symptoms range from hostility, aggression, aching of muscles and bones, jerky movements of the limbs, and anorexia to weight loss and insomnia. Long term effect of the consumption can also cause darker skin although the user remained indoors. The darker skin is due to the increase in the melanocyte-stimulating substance. It was suggested that in particular mitragynine may increase the production of melanocytestimulating substance. Long term users were reported to be thin with distended stomachs, unhealthy complexions, dark lips and dry skin. (Zurina, 2013)
- Goh, T. B., Mohamed, R. H., Mohamed, J., S., Mohd, N., ” A SIMPLE AND COST EFFECTIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION PROTOCOL OF MITRAGYNINE FROM MITRAGYNA SPECIOSA KORTH (KETUM) LEAVES”, The Malaysian Journal Of Analytical Science, 15, pp. 54-60, 2011.
- Zurina, H., Mustapha, M., “From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: Physiological and behavioural effects related to use, abuse, and addiction”, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 37, 138-151, 2013.